ISSN: 1870-5472

Números publicados:

Volumen 2, Número 2. Jul-Dic 2005



The objective of this paper is to analyze and explain the conditions, implications, and the impact of rural policies and institutions in México on growth and welfare in the country, in the frame of the neoliberal model of economic development during the last years. Several dysfunctions between the present agricultural economic structure and the process of implementation of the current changes in the reforms of agricultural policy are identified. These severe dysfunctions, induced, or at least led to depth, have been caused by the recent changes in strategy and macroeconomic policies and the institutional structure. The work hypothesis is that most of the dysfunctions in the rural sector in México have had so far direct influence on the low levels of efficiency and productivity of agriculture, thus affecting equity of social development and stability of the political system. First, the exceptional events are described in a historical perspective, analyzing the implications and the impact of state policy and institutions, which led to the consecutive models of rural and agricultural development, after to Mexican Revolution. The Agrarian Reform distributed the land and partly recognized the plight of the landless. Industrialization by import substitution (ISI) favored manufactured goods and city population and neglected the rural sector. Even though the production of basic grains and other foods reached self-sufficiency by the 60’s, shortage began to be felt mainly during the 70’s, due to population growth and lack of investments in the sector. The alimentary crisis was solved by increasing imports. The new project, called shared development, was not able to attract private investment to agricultural production. Under the imposed frame of structural adjustment after the 1982 crisis, policies of economic stabilization, brought trade liberalization and international competition to the sector, through constitutional reforms in land tenure and the opening of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The main factors, blocking growth and productivity, which may be classified in two types, are identified. The first type belongs to physical and geographic environment, considered as limiting factors and obstacles difficult to modify, because they are part of nature. The second group of factors covers agricultural and institutional policies, which depend mainly on political goodwill. It is shown that in the case of México, they have been erratic. After analyzing the total impact of these policies and institutions on economic growth, social expenditure, and political equity and instability, some considerations on the formulation of alternative policies are offered.

Palabras clave: Dysfunctions, institutions in México, alternative policies, rural policies

Volumen 2, Número 2

Volumen 2, Número 2
Jul-Dic 2005


Said Infante Gil

Director de ASyD

Benito Ramírez Valverde

Comité Asesor Editorial Interno

Ma. Eugenia Chávez Arellano
Juan Antonio Leos Rodríguez
Jaime Matus Gardea
Jacinta Palerm Viqueira
Verónica Vázquez García
Emma Zapata Martelo
Pilar Alberti Manzanares
Colegio de Postgraduados · Estadística · Km 36.5 Carretera México-Texcoco · 56230
Apartado Postal 199 · 56190 · Texcoco Edo. de México ·